China, in its most blunt admission to date that it has prioritized local issues above international ones, the Chinese Communist Party said on Wednesday that over the past five years it has “prioritized national interests” and demonstrated a “fighting spirit”. As part of a reassessment of diplomacy under President Xi Jinping, observers say this confirmation of foreign policy at a crucial meeting is a clear indication that China will continue to be forceful. Xi is expected to extend his rule this month.

Xi’s anticipated totalitarian regime, the 20th National Party Congress will be held soon.

According to Wednesday’s report by the official Xinhua News Agency, the party’s Central Committee made its announcement at its sixth plenum. The four-day plenum was its final assembly before the next reshuffle of Congress leaders, starting on Sunday.

According to Xinhua, the party “has put domestic politics ahead of national goals, maintained strategic patience, demonstrated fighting spirit and struggled to uphold national honor and vital interests.”

The “proper management” of the risks and difficulties posed by the Ukraine crisis, the “ongoing fight against separatism and foreign intervention” and the strict enforcement of COVID limitations are among the party’s achievements, according to Xinhua.

China has underlined its territorial claims on self-governed Taiwan and criticized what it perceives as Western involvement in Hong Kong, a former British colony that returned to Chinese sovereignty in 1997.

A report Xi would present to Congress and a draft amendment to the party’s constitution were approved by a show of hands by the Central Committee, which was made up of about 360 senior party officials. During the Congress, changes will be announced.

Strict COVID-19 rules implemented by the CCP before the 20th NCP.

China’s basic national interest

China’s national interest has been more publicly discussed and clearly defined in recent years. The highest-level description of the interests guiding Chinese strategic thinking is provided by the debate over “core national interests,” a term that has gained popularity since around 2004.

The following three objectives are included in all definitions of these key interests issued by various Chinese leaders:

1. Uphold the core components of China’s state structure and national security (uphold CCP rule);

2. defend national sovereignty and territorial integrity;

3. China’s society and economy should develop steadily.

Survival of the regime, social order and economic development

Viewing regime survival, internal security, and economic progress as a means to achieve these goals, the new discussion of core national interests is consistent with a broader set of Chinese strategic statements and behaviors.

By crushing the Tiananmen protests in 1989, the leaders showed they were willing to risk global condemnation as well as significant economic harm, underscoring the importance of regime security.

This goal is now evident in everything from media restriction to China’s diplomatic statements and UN voting habits, which consistently uphold sovereignty rules. Beijing attaches great importance to the steady growth of the national economy and society, as it is essential for the regime’s survival.

Social instability could be the party’s biggest challenge, according to Beijing leaders, who also see balanced economic development as important.

Since Deng Xiaoping launched the reform and opened China to economic relations with the rest of the world after 1978, economic growth has been a primary goal. Beijing’s foreign policy under Deng shifted from supporting national liberation groups and ideological disputes to promoting trade with almost any government, regardless of regime type.

Regional peace and stability have been repeatedly emphasized as a prerequisite for economic progress in foreign policy statements. Beijing has tried to reassure neighboring states by describing these advances as “China’s peaceful rise” and “peace and development” as its influence has spread and its neighbors have grown increasingly cautious about respect.

Notably, although it has engaged in targeted trade retaliation in economic disputes, China has not enacted sanctions intended to promote its strictly political goals.

Beijing may be more willing than ever to bear some economic costs to advance international policy goals, but in a number of significant recent cases where political disputes seemed likely to impact trade or investment interests Chinese, Beijing has exercised restraint to maintain these costs. at least.

Territorial integrity

Moreover, the preservation of “national sovereignty” and “territorial integrity” is not new to Beijing’s strategic vocabulary. On the other hand, the idea of ​​sovereignty as a codified and universal “fundamental national interest” may have important ramifications for Chinese action.

At present, official debates over China’s core national interests narrow the granting of “territorial integrity” to Taiwan, Tibet and Xinjiang, three important regions that have long been controversial and sensitive. As long as the Chinese state is secure and its economy is strong, Beijing-controlled Tibet and Xinjiang are unlikely to cause interstate conflict or pose a significant international threat.

The only part of China not under Beijing’s control, Taiwan, has long been considered the most dangerous international hotspot involving China. Most territorial disputes involving China have been resolved through the loss rather than the gain of territory, including nearly all of its land border disputes.

However, depending on how it is used, essential interests language could make it more difficult to resolve unresolved disagreements, including by restricting Beijing’s ability to make concessions.

Beijing may find it difficult to deny unofficial claims made by military officials or others who may refer to the disputed region as such, even if Beijing does not officially declare the South China Sea to be a national interest. vital. The inclusion of the Spratly Islands in this group has already sparked much debate in the West.

The risk that new regions, such as Taiwan, will turn into intractable problems from a Chinese domestic and international political perspective has increased following the Beijing leadership’s popularization of a generalized language of core national interests that could be enforced to the South China Sea. .

Global role

China wants to be seen as an important and useful part of the international community, but there is disagreement over what exactly that entails. He enjoys his membership in the United Nations, the United Nations Security Council, the World Trade Organization, the G-20, the Nuclear Suppliers Group of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and a number of number of other international organizations because it has a strong interest in a significant part of the current market. global governance architecture.

In addition, it participates in various regional organizations in Southeast Asia, Central Asia, South America, Africa and other regions as a member or observer. It has increased its organizational and financial contributions, which now cover international staffing and training assignments, both globally and regionally.

Trade and economic development must not be hindered.

Beijing’s perception of its function as an active member of the international community differs from Washington’s perspective on many occasions: the degree of convergence with US perspectives is highly subject-specific and results from particular Chinese objectives.

The six-party talks on North Korea saw strong Chinese participation, and it also took part in anti-piracy operations in the Gulf of Aden by conducting joint patrols with South Korean and Japanese contingents. Its positions are closer to those of the United States than, for example, to those of India on certain economic, trade and investment issues.

On a few others, like GM crops, it looks more like Washington than most European states.

In other cases, Chinese positions conflict with American positions. The most important of these concerns is national sovereignty. Beijing is extremely hesitant to support sanctions or other actions that could further erode international norms associated with national sovereignty out of concern for international interference in China’s own affairs in the event of internal instability.

In order to counter or frustrate US and European efforts to penalize Syria and Iran, China has partnered with Russia (and, in some situations, Brazil, India, etc.). While being a member of the majority of organizations that define the current global system, China also plays an active and significant role in at least two of these organizations, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and the alliance made up of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa have attempted to influence world politics in ways more favorable to emerging or non-Western nations.

Last but not least, Washington’s position, which maintains that there are no restrictions on freedom of navigation, is at odds with Beijing’s interpretation of the UN law of the sea, which gives Beijing the right to deny other countries access to its exclusive economic zones (EEZ) for things like military surveillance and marine scientific research. Beijing disagrees with the majority of world opinion on this, despite the fact that 16 other states have taken positions similar to China’s (including India and the Philippines).

More power will be given to Xi Jinping at the 20th National Congress by the Chinese Community Party

China is sinking ever deeper into authoritarianism and rapidly losing its carefully constructed competitive edge, despite Xi Jinping tightening his control and suppressing domestic criticism. Xi’s third term is highly anticipated. With the crisis escalating, China is seen as a “strategic threat” by neighboring states. China’s quest for legitimacy and sovereignty is still not over.